/  Committee History and Processes

About the Committee on Rules—History and Processes

 

Chairman Pete Sessions Texas 32

The Committee

The Committee on Rules is amongst the oldest standing committees in the House, having been first formally constituted on April 2, 1789. The Committee is commonly known as “The Speaker’s Committee” because it is the mechanism that the Speaker uses to maintain control of the House Floor, and was chaired by the Speaker until 1910. Because of the vast power wielded by the Rules Committee, its ratio has traditionally been weighted in favor of the majority party, and has been in its “2 to 1 1” (9 majority and 4 minority members) configuration since the late 1970s.

The Rules Committee has two broad categories of jurisdiction: special orders for the consideration of legislation (known as “special rules” or “rules”) and original jurisdiction matters. A special rule provides the terms and conditions of debate on a measure or matter, consideration of which constitutes the bulk of the work of the Rules Committee. The Committee also considers original jurisdiction measures, which commonly represent changes to the standing rules of the House, or measures that contain special rules, such as the expedited procedures in trade legislation.

The Committee has the authority to do virtually anything during the course of consideration of a measure, including deeming it passed. The Committee can also include a self- executed amendment which could rewrite just parts of a bill, or the entire measure. In essence, so long as a majority of the House is willing to vote for a special rule, there is little that the Rules Committee cannot do.

Special Rule Process

The process for reporting a special rule is a mixture of House rules, committee rules, and long-established practice.

  1. The committee of jurisdiction sends a letter requesting a hearing by the Rules Committee. The letter usually includes a request that a hearing be scheduled, a stipulation of the type of special rule desired, the amount of debate time needed, and any waivers of House rules necessary for consideration of the bill.
  2. Rules Committee holds a hearing where the witnesses are the Members of the House who sit on the committee of jurisdiction or want to offer amendments.
  3. Rules Committee marks up a special rule. The Rules Committee, in consultation with the majority leadership and the substantive committee chairmen, determines the type of rule to be granted, including the amount of general debate, the amendment process, and waivers to be granted, if any.
  4. The special rule is reported and filed. Special rules must be filed from the floor while the House is in session.
  5. The special rule is considered and debated in the House. After a one-day layover, special rules may be considered on the House floor at any time. A two-thirds vote is necessary to consider a special rule on the same day that it is reported. The rule is debated under the hour rule. Special rules reported by the Rules Committee are debated under a House rule that permits Members specifically recognized by the Chair to hold the floor for no more than one hour. The hour is managed by the majority party member of the Rules Committee calling up the rule, not the committee that reported the underlying bill. Out of custom, one-half the time is yielded to a minority member of the Rules Committee. At the end of debate, the previous question is put to a vote in order to cut off further debate, prevent the offering of additional amendments to the rule, and bring the special rule to an immediate vote.

Special Rule Types

Rules are traditionally referred to along a spectrum, where on one end they are open and the other they are closed. While there is wide variation in the middle, there are certain standard kinds of rules.

  • Open rules - permit the offering of any amendment that otherwise complies with House rules, and allows debate under the 5-minute rule.
  • Modified-Open rules - operate much like an open rule, but have some restriction on the “universe” of amendments, either through a pre-printing requirement or an overall time limit on consideration of amendments.
  • Structured rules - specify that only certain amendments may be considered and specify the time for debate.
  • Closed rules - effectively eliminate the opportunity to consider amendments, other than those reported by the committee reporting the bill.

Chairman Pete Sessions

Pete Sessions (R-TX) has served in the House of Representatives since 1997 and as chairman of the House Rules Committee since 2013 (113th and 114th Congress). Sessions grew up in Waco, Texas and after graduating from Southwestern University went on to work in the private sector for 16 years. Throughout his time in Congress, Sessions has worked to pursue market-based reforms to help the government operate more efficiently.

As an Eagle Scout, Sessions stays active within the Boy Scouts of America community and is the recipient of the National Distinguished Eagle Scout Award. Sessions is the parent of a child with Down syndrome and is a passionate advocate for people with disabilities. He is the proud father of two sons, Bill and Alex, and three stepsons, Conor, Liam and Nicholas. Congressman Sessions resides in Dallas, Texas and continues to be active in his community where he is an Adopt-A-Shoreline Team Leader in the effort to maintain White Rock Lake in Dallas and an Advisor to the President of Special Olympics Texas.

Chairmen of the Standing House Committee on Rules

(1849–1850; 1880 to present)

The House established a standing Committee on Rules by resolution on December 27, 1849, at the opening of the 31st Congress (1849–1851). It was terminated as a standing committee in the second session of that Congress, when the House reverted to its longtime practice of appointing a temporary select committee on rules at the opening of each Congress. On March 2, 1880, during the 46th Congress, the Committee on Rules was again re-established as a standing committee, and that status was continued under the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946.

  • Twenty-seven individuals have chaired the standing Committee on Rules; the very first chairman was David Kaufman of Texas.
  • The longest-serving chairman was Howard Smith of Virginia who chaired the committee from 1955 to 1967.
  • More Members from New York (5) have chaired the committee than any other state: Bertrand Snell, John O’Conner, James Delaney, Gerald Solomon, and Louise Slaughter. Slaughter is the only woman to have chaired the committee.
  • Seven Speakers of the House chaired the committee from 1880 until 1910 when House Rules were modified after the Cannon Revolt to remove the Speaker from the chairmanship: Samuel Randall of Pennsylvania, J. Warren Keifer of Ohio, John Carlisle of Kentucky, Thomas Brackett Reed of Maine, Charles Crisp of Georgia, David Henderson of Iowa, and Joseph Cannon of Illinois.[1]

Congress ( years)

Name

Party

State

31st (1849–50)[2]

David Kaufman

Democrat

Texas

46th (1880–81)

Samuel Randall[3]

Democrat

Pennsylvania

47th (1881–83)

J. Warren Keifer

Republican

Ohio

48th–50th (1883–89)

John Carlisle

Democrat

Kentucky

51st (1889–91)

Thomas Brackett Reed

Republican

Maine

52nd–53rd (1891–95)

Charles Crisp

Democrat

Georgia

54th–55th (1895–99)

Thomas Brackett Reed

Republican

Maine

56th–57th (1899–1903)

David Henderson

Republican

Iowa

58th–61st (1903–10)

Joseph Cannon[4]

Republican

Illinois

61st (1910–11)

John Dalzell[5]

Republican

Pennsylvania

62nd–64th (1911–17)

Robert Henry

Democrat

Texas

65th (1917–19)

Edward Pou

Democrat

North Carolina

66th–67th (1919–23)

Philip Campbell

Republican

Kansas

68th–71st (1923–31)

Bertrand Snell

Republican

New York

72nd–73rd (1931–35)

Edward Pou

Democrat

North Carolina

74th–75th (1935–39)

John O’Conner

Democrat

New York

76th–79th (1939–47)

Adolph Sabath

Democrat

Illinois

80th (1947–49)

Leo Allen

Republican

Illinois

81st–82nd (1949–51)

Adolph Sabath

Democrat

Illinois

83rd (1953–55)

Leo Allen

Republican

Illinois

84th–89th (1955–67)

Howard Smith

Democrat

Virginia

90th–92nd (1967–73)

William Colmer

Democrat

Mississippi

93rd–94th (1973–77)

Ray Madden

Democrat

Indiana

95th (1977–79)

James Delaney

Democrat

New York

96th–97th (1979–83)

Richard Bolling

Democrat

Missouri

98th–101st (1983–89)

Claude Pepper[6]

Democrat

Florida

101st–103rd (1989–95)

J. Joseph Moakley[7]

Democrat

Massachusetts

104th–105th (1995–99)

Gerald Solomon

Republican

New York

106th–109th (1999–2007)

David Dreier

Republican

California

110th–111th (2007–09)

Louise Slaughter

Democrat

New York

112th (2011–13)

David Dreier

Republican

California

113th–114th (2013–17)

Pete Sessions

Republican

Texas

 

 

Sources:

Congressional Directory, multiple previous editions

Nelson, Garrison et. al., Committees in the U.S. Congress, 1789–1946: Volume I, House Standing Committees (Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2002).

________.  Committees in the U.S. Congress, 1947–1992: Committee Jurisdictions and Member Rosters (Washington, DC: CQ Press, 1993).

Notes:



[1] Speakers had been chairing the select rules committees since at least the late 1850s.  See Donald R. Wolfensberger, “House Rules Committee,” Donald C. Bacon et al., eds, Encyclopedia of the U.S. Congress, Volume 4 (New York: Macmillan, 1994): 1744–1748.

[2] The committee was organized on December 27, 1849 and met until September 30, 1850. It was not reauthorized as a standing committee when the House reconvened for the start of the second session of that Congress.

[3] The House re-established the standing Committee on Rules on March 2, 1880. Speaker Randall’s starting service date as chairman commenced on March 19, 1880.

[4] Cannon was removed as chairman effective March 25, 1910.

[5] The House adopted new rules and made Dalzell chairman of the committee effective March 25, 1910.

[6] Pepper died in office on May 30, 1989. 

[7] Moakley succeeded Pepper as committee chairman on June 7, 1989.

 

Hearing Room Committee Chair Portraits

The Newest Rules Committee Portrait

Louise Slaughter (D-NY): Entering Congress in 1987, Louise Slaughter is the first woman to represent Western New York, and in 2007, became the first female chair of the Rules Committee. Slaughter was chairwoman of the Committee from 2007 to 2011 (110th-111th Congresses) and has also served as Ranking Member while in the minority party. Congresswoman Slaughter has an interest in addressing science and health-related issues as she has a background in microbiology and public health. 

Rules Committee Portraits Displayed In The Hearing Room

John “Joe” Moakley (D-MA): Congressman Moakley serves as chairman of the House Rules Committee from 1989 to 1995 (101st-103rd Congresses). Moakley opposed the legislative veto and was vindicated when the Supreme Court found it unconstitutional in 1983.

Claude Pepper (D-FL): Congressman Pepper served as chairman of the House Rules Committee from 1983 until his death in 1989 (98th-101st Congresses). Pepper was first elected to the United States Senate in 1936, and is one of very few individuals to subsequently serve in the U.S. House of Representatives. Shortly before his death, George H.W. Bush presented him with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Gerald Solomon (R-NY): Congressman Solomon was chairman of the House Rules Committee from 1995 to 1999 (104th-105th Congresses). As a retired Marine, Solomon fought for veterans’ benefits throughout his time in Congress. Solomon was well-known for the “Solomon Amendment,” which amended the United States Code to allow for federal grants to be denied to institutions of higher education if they prohibit ROTC or military recruitment on campus.

Ray Madden (D-IN): Congressman Madden was 80 years old when he became chairman of the House Rules Committee in 1973 (93rd Congress), and served until he lost reelection four years later during the 94th Congress. Prior to being elected to Congress, he served as a judge in Omaha, Nebraska but resigned to serve in the Navy during the First World War. 

Richard Bolling (D-MO): Congressman Bolling served as chairman of the House Rules Committee from 1979 to 1983 (96th-97th Congresses). Bolling cited his role in helping pass the first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction as the accomplishment that gave him most pride.

Philip Campbell (R-KS): Congressman Campbell served as chairman of the House Rules Committee from 1919 to 1923 (66th-67th Congresses). Campbell was born in Canada but moved to Kansas with his parents as a child. During his time in Congress, Campbell spoke out against Jim Crow laws.